Revised Code of Washington
Title 1 -- General Provisions
- RCW 1.16.050 "Legal holidays and legislatively recognized days."
- RCW 1.20.017 Display of national league of families' POW/MIA flag.
Title 2 -- Courts of Record
- RCW 2.12.010 Retirement for service or age
- 2.28.165 Specialty and therapeutic courts — Establishment — Principles of best practices — Limitations.
- RCW 2.28.170 Drug courts.
- RCW 2.28.175 DUI courts.
- RCW 2.28.180 Mental health courts.
- RCW 2.28.190 DUI court, drug court, and mental health court may be combined.
- RCW 2.48.070 Admission of veterans
- RCW 2.48.080 Admission of veterans -- Establishment of requirements if in service.
- RCW 2.48.090 Admission of veterans -- Establishment of requirements if discharged.
- RCW 2.48.100 Admission of veterans -- Effect of disability discharge.
- RCW 2.48.110 Admission of veterans -- Fees of veterans.
Title 5 -- Evidence
- RCW 5.40.020 Written finding of presumed death as prima facie evidence.
- RCW 5.40.030 Proof of missing in action, capture by enemy, etc.
Title 6 -- Enforcement of Judgements
- RCW 6.15.020 Pension money exempt -- Exceptions -- Transfer of spouse's interest in individual retirement account.
- RCW 6.26.060Issuance of writ -- Notice -- Hearing -- Issuance without prior notice -- Forms for notice.
- RCW 6.27.140 Form of returns under RCW 6.27.130
Title 9 -- Washington criminal code
- RCW 9A.60.045 Criminal impersonation in the second degree.
Title 10 -- Criminal Procedure
- RCW 10.101.010 Definitions.
Title 19 -- Business Regulations -- Miscellaneous
- RCW 19.09.075 Charitable organizations -- Application for registration -- Contents -- Fee -- Veterans' affairs -- Notice, advice.
- RCW 19.09.100 Conditions applicable to solicitations.
Title 26 -- Domestic Relations
- RCW 26.19.045 Veterans' disability pensions, compensation for disability, and aid and attendant care payments.
- RCW 26.19.055 Payments for attendant services in cases of disability.
Title 28A -- Common School Provisions
- RCW 28A.150.050 School holidays.
- RCW 28A.230.120 High school diplomas -- Issuance -- Option to receive final transcripts -- Notice.
- RCW 28A.230.160 Educational activities in observance of Veterans' Day.
- RCW 28A.230.180 Educational and career opportunities in the military, student access to information on, when.
- RCW 28A.300.370 World War II oral history project.
Title 28B -- Higher Education
- RCW 28B.10.016 Definitions.
- RCW 28B.10.017 "Eligible student" defined.
- RCW 28B.10.270 Rights of Washington national guard and other military reserve students called to active service.
- 28B.15.012 Classification as resident or nonresident student—Definitions.
- RCW 28B.15.380 Exemption from payment of fees at state universities, regional universities, and The Evergreen State College -- Veterans and children of certain law enforcement officers or fire fighters.
- RCW 28B.15.600 Refunds or cancellation of fees -- Four-year institutions of higher education.
- RCW 28B.15.621 Tuition waivers -- Veterans and national guard members -- Dependents -- Private institutions.
- RCW 28B.15.624 Early course registration period for eligible veterans and national guard members. (Expires August 1, 2022.)
- RCW 28B.15.625 Rights of Washington national guard and other military reserve students called to active service.
- RCW 28B.15.910 Limitation on Total Operating fees revenue waived, exempted, or reduced - Outreach to veterans.
- RCW 28B.115.110 Participant obligation -- Repayment obligation
Title 28C -- Vocational Education
- RCW 28C.18.060 Board's duties.
Title 35 -- Cities and Towns
Title 38 -- Militia and Military Affairs
- RCW 38.20.010 Regulations governing armories.
- RCW 38.40.060Military leaves for public employees.
- RCW 38.40.120Authorized military organizations.
Title 41 -- Public Employment, Civil Service and Pensions
- RCW 41.04.005 "Veteran" defined for certain purposes.
- RCW 41.04.007 "Veteran" defined for certain purposes.
- RCW 41.04.010 Veterans' scoring criteria status in examinations.
- RCW 41.04.665 Leave Sharing Program (Includes Veterans In State Service Shared Leave)
- RCW 41.04.672 Veterans' in-state service shared leave pool.
- RCW 41.05.011 Definitions. (Effective March 1, 2002.)
- RCW 41.05.031 Agencies to establish health care information systems.
- RCW 41.06.020 Definitions.
- RCW 41.06.070 Exemptions -- Right of reversion to civil service status -- Exception -- Expiration of subsection.
- RCW 41.06.077 Department of veterans affairs -- Certain personnel exempted from chapter.
- RCW 41.06.133 Rules of director — Personnel administration — Required agency report
- RCW 41.06.150 Rules of board -- Mandatory subjects -- Veterans' preference -- Affirmative action.
- RCW 41.08.040 Organization of commission -- Secretary -- Powers and duties of commission.
- RCW 41.12.040 Organization of commission -- Secretary -- Powers and duties of commission.
- RCW 41.16.220 Credit for military service.
- RCW 41.18.150 Credit for military service.
- RCW 41.20.050 Pension on retirement for years of service.
- RCW 41.26.190 Credit for military service
- RCW 41.26.520 Service credit for paid leave of absence, officers of labor organizations, unpaid leave of absence, military service. (Effective March 1, 2002.) RCW 41.28.050 Allowance of service credit.
- RCW 41.32.260 Credit for military service or as state legislator.
- RCW 41.32.310 Time limit for claiming service credit -- Payments.
- RCW 41.32.810 Service credit for paid leave of absence, officers of labor organizations, unpaid leave of absence, military service.
- RCW 41.32.865 Service credit for paid leave of absence, officers of labor organizations, unpaid leave of absence, military service.
- RCW 41.40.023 Membership.
- RCW 41.40.170 Credit for military service.
- RCW 41.40.710 Service credit for paid leave of absence, officers of labor organizations, unpaid leave of absence, military service. (Effective March 1, 2002.)
- RCW 41.44.120 Prior service credit.
- RCW 41.68.010 Legislative finding.
- RCW 41.68.020 Eligibility for reparation.
- RCW 41.68.030 Submittal of claim
- RCW 41.68.040 Determination of eligibility.
- RCW 41.68.050 Payment of reparation.
- Compile the complete 41.68 chapter
Title 42 -- Public Officers and Agencies
- RCW 42.17.240 Elected and appointed officials, candidates, and appointees -- Reports of financial affairs and gifts.
- RCW 42.17.2401"Executive state officer" defined.
- RCW 42.56.440 Veterans Discharge Papers - Exceptions.
Title 43 -- State Government -- Executive
- RCW 43.10.290 Office of military and veteran legal assistance - Created - Definitions - Limitations
- RCW 43.10.292 Office of military and veteran legal assistance - Duties
- RCW 43.10.294 Office of military and veteran legal assistance - Grants, gifts, donations.
- RCW 43.17.010 Departments created.
- RCW 43.17.020 Chief executive officers -- Appointment.
- RCW 43.19.190 State purchasing and material control director -- Powers and duties.
- RCW 43.19.1906 Competitive bids -- Sealed bids, exceptions.
- RCW 43.20A.010 Purpose.
- RCW 43.20A.030 Department created -- Powers and duties transferred to.
- RCW 43.20A.060 Departmental divisions -- Plan establishing and organizing.
- RCW 43.24.130 License moratorium for persons in service.
- RCW 43.41.460 Military recruitment program for veterans - Development - Report
- RCW 43.43.015 Affirmative action.
- RCW 43.43.230 Total service credit.
- RCW 43.43.260 Benefits-Military service credit.
- RCW 43.43.340 Eligible list, and promotions there from -- Affirmative action.
- RCW 43.60A.010 Definitions.
- RCW 43.60A.020 Department created -- Transfer of powers, duties, and functions to department.
- RCW 43.60A.030 Director -- Qualifications -- Salary -- Vacancy.
- RCW 43.60A.040 General powers and duties of director.
- RCW 43.60A.050 Assistants -- Executive staff -- Deputy.
- RCW 43.60A.060 Delegation of powers and duties.
- RCW 43.60A.070 Additional powers and duties of director.
- RCW 43.60A.075 Powers as to state veterans' homes.
- RCW 43.60A.080 Veterans affairs advisory committee -- Created -- Membership -- Terms -- Powers and duties.
- RCW 43.60A.100 Counseling services -- Veterans, including national guard and reservists.
- RCW 43.60A.101 Peer-to-peer support program - Report to the legislature.
- RCW 43.60A.110 Counseling -- Coordination of programs.
- RCW 43.60A.120 Counseling -- Priority.
- RCW 43.60A.130 Counseling -- Post traumatic stress disorder and combat stress program.
- RCW 43.60A.140 Veterans Stewardship account.
- RCW 43.60A.150 Veterans Conservation Corps -- Report to the Legislature.
- RCW 43.60A.151 Veterans conservation corps — Employment assistance — Agreements for educational benefits — Receipt of gifts, grants, or federal moneys — Report.
- RCW 43.60A.152 Collaboration with agencies implementing the Washington conservation corps — Report.
- RCW 43.60A.153 Veterans conservation corps account.
- RCW 43.60A.154 Agreements with federal entities for projects -- Report.
- RCW 43.60A.155 Cooperation with the salmon recovery funding board regarding project work -- Report
- RCW 43.60A.160 Veterans innovations program.
- RCW 43.60A.185 Veterans innovations program account.
- RCW 43.60A.190 Veteran-owned businesses.
- RCW 43.60A.195 Veteran-owned business certification — Rules — Outreach.
- RCW 43.60A.200 Awards of procurement contracts by state agencies to veteran-owned businesses.
- RCW 43.60A.210 Donations to disabled veterans assistance account.
- RCW 43.60A.215 Disabled veterans assistance account.
- RCW 43.60A.220 Helmets to hardhats program.
- RCW 43.60A.240 Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer coordinator-Created-Duties-Report.
- RCW 43.60A.245 Military spouse liaison-Created-Duties
- RCW 43.60A.900 Transfer of personnel of department of social and health services engaged in veterans' services -- Rights preserved.
- RCW 43.60A.903 Certification when apportionments of budgeted funds required because of transfers.
- RCW 43.60A.904 Federal programs -- Rules and regulations -- Internal reorganization to meet federal requirements -- Construction to comply with federal law -- Conflicting parts inoperative.
- RCW 43.60A.906 Collective bargaining units or agreements not altered.
- RCW 43.60A.907 Liberal construction -- 1975-'76 2nd ex.s. c 115.
- RCW 43.60A.908 Severability -- 1975-'76 2nd ex.s. c 115.
- Compile the complete 43.60A chapter
- RCW 43.61.030 Contracts with veterans' organizations to provide veterans services -- Use of funds.
- RCW 43.61.040 Director of veterans affairs to make rules and regulations -- Veteran services -- Annual report.
- RCW 43.61.060 Donations may be accepted -- Procedure for allotment and use.
- RCW 43.61.070 Payments to veterans' organizations -- Approval by director of veterans affairs.
- Compile the complete 43.61 chapter
- 43.70.442 Suicide assessment, treatment, and management training—Requirement for certain professionals—Exemptions—Model list of programs—Rules—Health profession training standards provided to the professional educator standards board. (Effective until August 1, 2020.)
- RCW 43.81.010 Legislative declaration.
- 43.86A.060 Linked deposit program—Eligible entities—Interest rates—Rule-making authority.
- 43.86A.070 Linked deposit program—Liability.
- 43.86A.080 Linked deposit program—Minority and women's business enterprises—Public depositories' participation.
TITLE 46 -- MOTOR VEHICLES
- 46.04.028 Armed forces license plate collection.
- 46.17.220 Special license plate fees.
- 46.18.200 Department-approved plate types
- 46.18.210 Armed forces license plates.
- 46.18.212 Armed forces decals.
- 46.18.230 Congressional medal of honor license plates.
- 46.18.235 Disabled American veteran or former prisoner of war license plates.
- 46.18.245 Gold star license plates.
- 46.18.270 Pearl Harbor survivor license plates.
- 46.18.277 Personalized special license plates.
- 46.18.280 Purple heart license plates.
- 46.18.295 Veterans and military personnel emblems.
- 46.19.060 Special license plates for persons with disabilities, special license plates with a special year tab for persons with disabilities -- Fees -- Renewal -- Transfer
- 46.20.161 Issuance - Contents - Fee. (Veteran Designation on Drivers License)
- 46.25.060 Knowledge and skills examination, exemptions, fee distribution.
TITLE 47 - STATE HIGHWAY ROUTES
- RCW 47.17.140 State route No. 90 -- American Veterans Memorial Highway.
- RCW 47.38.060 Dedication of rest areas.
TITLE 48 - INSURANCE
- RCW 48.13.140 Appraisal of property -- Insurance -- Limit of loan.
- RCW 48.36A.380 World War I societies.
TITLE 49 - LABOR RELATIONS
- RCW 49.74.005 Legislative findings -- Purpose.
TITLE 50 - UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION
- RCW 50.12.210 Employment services for handicapped -- Report to legislative committees.
- RCW 50.16.080 Federal targeted jobs tax credit program -- Administration -- Processing fee -- Deposit of fees.
TITLE 67 - SPORTS AND RECREATION - CONVENTION FACILITIES
- RCW 67.08.100 Annual licenses -- Fees -- Qualifications--Revocation--Exceptions.
TITLE 68 - CEMETERIES, MORGUES, AND HUMAN REMAINS
- RCW 68.50.160 Right to control disposition of remains -- Liability of funeral establishment or cemetery authority--Liability for cost.
- RCW 68.50.230 Human remains that have not been disposed
TITLE 69 - FOOD, DRUGS, COSMETICS, AND POISONS
- RCW 69.41.030 Sale, delivery, or possession of legend drug without prescription or order prohibited -- Exceptions.
- RCW 69.45.010 Definitions.
TITLE 70 - PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY
- RCW 70.58.107 Fees charged by department and local registrars
- RCW 70.129.005 Intent -- Basic rights.
- RCW 70.129.007 Rights are minimal -- Other rights not diminished.
- RCW 70.129.010 Definitions.
- RCW 70.129.020 Exercise of rights.
- RCW 70.129.030 Notice of rights and services -- Admission of individuals.
- RCW 70.129.040 Protection of resident's funds -- Financial affairs rights.
- RCW 70.129.050 Privacy and confidentiality of personal and medical records.
- RCW 70.129.060 Grievances.
- RCW 70.129.070 Examination of survey or inspection results -- Contact with client advocates.
- RCW 70.129.080 Mail and telephone -- Privacy in communications.
- RCW 70.129.090 Advocacy, access, and visitation rights.
- RCW 70.129.100 Personal property -- Storage space.
- RCW 70.129.105 Waiver of liability and resident rights limited.
- RCW 70.129.110 Disclosure, transfer, and discharge requirements.
- RCW 70.129.120 Restraints -- Physical or chemical.
- RCW 70.129.130 Abuse, punishment, seclusion -- Background checks.
- RCW 70.129.140 Quality of life -- Rights.
- RCW 70.129.150 Disclosure of fees and notice requirements -- Deposits.
- RCW 70.129.160 Ombudsman implementation duties.
- RCW 70.129.170 Nonjudicial remedies through regulatory authorities encouraged -- Remedies cumulative.
- RCW 70.129.900 Severability -- 1994 c 214.
- RCW 70.129.901 Conflict with federal requirements -- 1994 c 214.
- RCW 70.129.902 Captions not law.
- Compile the complete 70.129
TITLE 71 - MENTAL ILLNESS
- RCW 71.02.490 Authority over patient -- Federal agencies, private establishments.
TITLE 72 - STATE INSTITUTIONS
- RCW 72.01.045 Assaults to employees -- Reimbursement for costs.
- RCW 72.23.290 Transfer of patients -- Authority of transferee.
- RCW 72.36.010 Establishment of soldiers' home.
- RCW 72.36.020 Superintendents -- Licensed nursing home administrator.
- RCW 72.36.030 Admission--Applicants must apply for federal and state benefits.
- RCW 72.36.035 Definitions.
- RCW 72.36.037 Resident rights.
- RCW 72.36.040 Colony established -- Who may be admitted.
- RCW 72.36.045 State veterans' homes - Maintenance defined
- RCW 72.36.050 Regulations of home applicable -- Rations, medical attendance, clothing.
- RCW 72.36.055 Domiciliary and nursing care to be provided.
- RCW 72.36.060 Federal funds.
- RCW 72.36.070 Washington veterans' home.
- RCW 72.36.075 Eastern Washington veterans' home.
- RCW 72.36.077 Eastern Washington veterans' home -- Funding -- Intent.
- RCW 73.26.081 Walla Walla veterans' home
- RCW 72.36.090 Hobby promotion.
- RCW 72.36.100 Purchase of equipment, materials for therapy, hobbies.
- RCW 72.36.110 Burial of deceased member or deceased spouse.
- RCW 72.36.115 Eastern Washington state veterans' cemetery.
- RCW 72.36.120 Deposit of veteran income--Expenditures and revenue control.
- RCW 72.36.140 Medicaid qualifying operations.
- RCW 72.36.145 Reduction in allowable income--Certification of qualifying operations.
- RCW 72.36.150 Resident council--Generally.
- RCW 72.36.160 Personal needs allowance.
- RCW 72.36.1601 Findings.
- Compile the complete 72.36
Title 73 RCW - VETERANS AND VETERANS' AFFAIRS
- RCW 73.04.010 Pension papers -- Fees not to be charged.
- RCW 73.04.020 Pension papers -- Fees not to be charged -- Penalty.
- RCW 73.04.030 Discharges recorded without charge.
- RCW 73.04.040 Discharges recorded without charge -- Certified copy as proof.
- RCW 73.04.042 Honorable discharge recorded -- Veterans of Spanish-American War and World War I.
- RCW 73.04.050 Right to peddle, vend, sell goods without license -- License fee on business established under act of congress prohibited.
- RCW 73.04.060 Right to peddle, vend, sell goods without license -- Issuance of license.
- RCW 73.04.070 Meeting hall may be furnished veterans' organizations.
- RCW 73.04.080 Meeting place rental may be paid out of county fund.
- RCW 73.04.090 Benefits, preferences, exemptions, etc., limited to veterans subject to full, continuous military control.
- RCW 73.04.110 Free license plates for disabled veterans, prisoners of war -- Penalty.
- RCW 73.04.115 Free license plates for surviving spouses of deceased prisoners of war.
- RCW 73.04.120 Certificate stating marital status available free.
- RCW 73.04.130 Veteran estate management program -- Director authority -- Criteria.
- RCW 73.04.131 Veteran estate management program -- Definitions.
- RCW 73.04.135 Veteran estate management program -- Claims against veteran's estate -- Fees to support program.
- RCW 73.04.140 Guardians -- Department officers and employees prohibited.
- RCW 73.04.150 Joint committee on veterans' and military affairs. (Expires December 31, 2005.)
- RCW 73.04.160 Veterans' history awareness month -- Commemoration of contributions of veterans.
- Compile the complete 73.04
- RCW 73.08.005 Definitions.
- RCW 73.08.010 County veterans' assistance programs for indigent veterans and families -- Requirements.
- RCW 73.08.035 Veterans' advisory boards.
- RCW 73.08.060 Restrictions on sending veterans or families to almshouses, etc.
- RCW 73.08.070 County burial of indigent deceased veterans.
- RCW 73.08.080 Tax levy authorized.
- RCW 73.08.090 Public assistance eligibility.
- Complete Chapter | RCW Dispositions
- 73.16.005 Intent--Purpose.
- 73.16.010 Preference in public employment.
- 73.16.015 Enforcement of preference -- Civil action.
- 73.16.020 Failure to comply -- Infraction.
- 73.16.031 Definitions.
- 73.16.032 Employment rights--Prohibited actions.
- 73.16.033 Reemployment of returned veterans.
- 73.16.035 Eligibility requirements--Exceptions--Burden of proof.
- 73.16.041 Leaves of absence of elective and judicial officers.
- 73.16.051 Restoration without loss of seniority or benefits.
- 73.16.053 Continuation of health plan coverage during absence--Reinstatement of health plan coverage upon reemployment.
- 73.16.055 Determination of pension benefits and liabilities for reemployed persons.
- 73.16.061 Enforcement of provisions.
- 73.16.070 Federal act to apply in state courts.
- 73.16.080 Bona fide executive, administrative, and professional employees--Offset of military pay.
- 73.16.090 Application of chapter--Other rights and benefits preserved.
- 73.16.100 Legislative declaration--Other civil actions abolished.
- 73.16.110 Preference in private employment -- Permissive.
- 73.16.900 Construction -- Chapter applicable to state registered domestic partnerships -- 2009 c 521.
- Complete Chapter | RCW Dispositions
- 73.20.010 Acknowledgments.
- 73.20.050 Agency created by power of attorney not revoked by unverified report of death.
- 73.20.060 Affidavit of agent as to knowledge of revocation.
- 73.20.070 "Missing in action" report not construed as actual knowledge.
- 73.20.080 Provision in power for revocation not affected.
- Complete Chapter | RCW Dispositions
- 73.24.020 Contract for care of veterans' plot at Olympia.
- 73.24.030 Authorized burials in plot.
- Complete Chapter | RCW Dispositions
- 73.36.010 Terms defined.
- 73.36.020 Administrator party in interest in guardianship proceedings -- Notice.
- 73.36.030 Appointment of guardian -- Necessary when.
- 73.36.040 Guardian -- Number of wards permitted.
- 73.36.050 Guardian -- Appointment -- Contents of petition.
- 73.36.060 Guardian for minor -- Appointment -- Prima facie evidence.
- 73.36.080 Notice of petition.
- 73.36.090 Guardian's bond.
- 73.36.100 Accounting by guardian -- Copies of all proceedings to be furnished administration -- Hearings.
- 73.36.110 Failure to account -- Penalties.
- 73.36.120 Compensation of guardian.
- 73.36.130 Investment of funds -- Procedure.
- 73.36.140 Use of funds -- Procedure.
- 73.36.150 Purchase of real estate -- Procedure.
- 73.36.155 Public records -- Free copies.
- 73.36.160 Discharge of guardian -- Final account.
- 73.36.165 Commitment to veterans administration or other federal agency.
- 73.36.170 Application of chapter to other guardianships of veterans.
- 73.36.180 Construction of chapter -- Uniformity.
- 73.36.190 Short title.
- Complete Chapter | RCW Dispositions
- 73.40.010 Memorial honoring state residents who died or are missing-in-action in southeast Asia.
- 73.40.030 Memorial honoring state residents who died or are missing-in-action in southeast Asia -- Display of individual names.
- 73.40.040 Memorial honoring state residents who died or are missing-in-action in the Korean conflict.
- Complete Chapter | RCW Dispositions
Title 74 RCW - PUBLIC ASSISTANCE
RCW 74.09.120 Purchases of services, care, supplies -- Nursing homes -- Veterans' homes -- Institutions for mentally retarded -- Institutions for mental diseases.
RCW 74.34.020 Definitions.
RCW 74.34.180 Retaliation against whistleblowers and residents -- Remedies -- Rules.
Title 77 RCW - FISH AND WILDLIFE
- RCW 77.32.237 Disabled hunter's permits.
- RCW 77.32.238 Disabled hunter's permits -- Shooting from a motor vehicle -- Assistance from nondisabled hunter.
- RCW 77.32.400 Disabled persons -- Designated harvester card -- Fish and shellfish.
- RCW 77.32.480 Reduced rate licenses.
Title 79A RCW - PUBLIC RECREATIONAL LANDS
- RCW 79A.05.065 Park passes -- Eligibility.
Title 82 RCW - EXCISE TAXES
- 82.08.0207 Adapted housing - Disabled Veterans - Construction.
- 82.08.875 Exemptions — Automotive adaptive equipment. (Expires July 1, 2018.)
- 82.12.875 Automotive adaptive equipment. (Expires July 1, 2018.)
Title 84 RCW - PROPERTY TAXES
- RCW 84.36.030 Property used for character building, benevolent, protective or rehabilitative social services -- Camp facilities -- Veteran or relief organization owned property -- Property of nonprofit organizations that issue debt for student loans or that are guarantee agencies.
- RCW 84.36.041 Nonprofit homes for the aging.
- RCW 84.36.383 Residences -- Definitions.
- RCW 84.56.020 Taxes collected by treasurer -- Dates of delinquency -- Tax statement notice concerning payment by check -- Interest -- Penalties.
- RCW 84.36.379 Residences — Property tax exemption — Findings.
- RCW 84.36.381 Residences — Property tax exemptions — Qualifications.
- RCW 84.36.383 Residences — Definitions.
- RCW 84.36.385 Residences — Claim for exemption — Forms — Change of status — Publication and notice of qualifications and manner of making claims.